Storage & Filesystem
These are all safe to run without risk of data loss.
Smart Data can be reset (buyer beware!)
sudo pacmatic -S --needed smartmontools
List all information:
sudo smart --all /dev/sdx
Run a test (see above for tests available):
sudo smartctl -t long /dev/sdx
Check if test is finished:
sudo smartctl -l selftest /dev/sdx
Check results of test:
sudo smartctl -H /dev/sdx
Run destructive read-write test of entire drive:
sudo badblocks -wsv -b 4096 -c 65536 -o badblocks.txt /dev/sdx
This runs 4 test patterns and then terminates. Block size 4k matches physical block size. Number of blocks = 256 MB at time.
-w = destructuve
-s = show progress
-v = output corruptions to stderr
-b = block size
-c = #blocks
If there is Current_Pending_Sector from SMART, the disk should automatically reallocate them when the sector is ZEROED, i.e. when badblocks is run. You can get the number of times this happens from Reallocated_Event_Count. You generally do not need to mark blocks as bad for the filesystem these days. Run a non-destructive read-write:
sudo badblocks -nsv -t 0 ...
-t = zero it only, do not run other test patterns
TODO: How to identify file, zero it out, and restore from backup. Look at smartmontools wiki.
Physical sector size = 512b/4kib
SSD Page Size. SSD erasure block size.
Conclusion seems to be stick to 1MiB default first sector.
Parchive?? - Only for specific files.
cryptsetup --integrityX --sector-size 4096 --label "" --allow-discards (open only)
X = hmac-sha256?--integrity hmac-sha512 and --cipher chacha20-random --integrity poly1305
That detects failures. Use mdadm scrub to be able to fix them.
[mdadm - safe disk]
[RAID dev1] [RAID dev2]
Not the best idea to use the same disk - performance and disk-failure concerns.
Linux fscrypt - fs file encryption could be useful. Once decrypted (key added to kernal keyring), it uses usual unix file permissions to protect access. (ext4, f2fs)
-m 0 - for non-root drives, no performance impact unless nearly full and running for long time to cause fragmentation
-T largefile - 1MiB files average limit for inodes (for backups).
what is fsck?